LTE RF Planning

Subject: 4G LTE
Category: Radio
Duration: 3 days

Course outline:

LTE RF Design Process

● RF Planning workflow
● Inputs to and targets for the planning process; expected outputs
● Coverage and capacity requirements
● Planning constraints
● Significant differences in planning for GSM and UMTS

EPS Overview and E-UTRAN Consideration (tool-based)

● Evolved Packet System architecture
● E-UTRAN architecture: nodes and interfaces
● eNB and UE architecture
● Radio frame for E-UTRA FDD and TDD
● Reference signals and pilots: RS, P-SS, S-SS, DRS, SRS
● PHY channels in the downlink: PBCH, PDCCH, PCFICH, PHICH, PDSCH
● PHY channels in the uplink: PRACH, PUCCH, PUSCH
● Link-level radio interface simulations

Radio Propagation Principles (tool-based)

● Spectrum considerations and LTE frequency bands
● RF requirements imposed on UE and eNB transceivers
● Large-scale and small-scale propagation effects; path-loss, shadowing and fading
● Propagation models: statistical, empirical and deterministic
● Configuration and tuning of the propagation model

Antenna Considerations and MIMO

● Antenna properties – size, gain, beam-width, polarization, front-to-back ratio
● LTE diversity techniques
● Spatial multiplexing, single-user and multi-user MIMO
● Transmission modes and MIMO feedback signaling
● Impact on LTE link budget and capacity
● Antenna system sharing options

Coverage Planning and Link Budgets (tool-based)

● Link budgets, gains and losses
● Role of adaptive modulation and coding scheme
● Requirements for signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SNIR) and receiver sensitivity
● Thermal noise calculations and interference estimation
● Maximum allowed path loss
● Impact of normal and extended cyclic prefix
● Impact of antenna configuration
● Range determination and site-to-site distance estimation
● Signal level and best server coverage plots
● SNIR and spectrum efficiency coverage plots
● Key measurements: RSSI, RSRP and RSRQ
● Site sharing options
● Improving coverage with the use of repeaters
● LTE downlink and uplink link budget exercises
● Planning tool configuration and simulations

Frequency Reuse and Interference Management (tool-based)

● Interference avoidance, cancellation and coordination
● Considerations for Single Frequency Network (SFN)
● Frequency-parallel schemes (OFDMA, SC-FDMA) in SFN
● Classical frequency reuse concept (integer reuse)
● Fractional frequency reuse (FFR) methods including soft reuse and partial reuse
● Comparison of FDD and TDD co-channel interference scenarios
● Role of X2 interface between eNBs in coordination of interference and load balancing
● Frequency planning performance evaluations and simulations

LTE Capacity Planning (tool-based)

● EPS bearers and QoS concept
● Traffic types and device types
● Capacity planning with MIMO
● Influence of Modulation and Coding Scheme distribution on sector capacity
● Overview of backhaul network options and requirements
● Exercises in capacity calculations

RAN Procedures Configuration

● Self-Organizing Network (SON)
● Synchronization signals distribution (PHY cell ID planning)
● Random access preamble allocation and dimensioning of PRACH opportunities
● Cell reselection and handover parameters
● Uplink and downlink transmit power control
● Feedback reporting configuration (CQI, PMI, RI)

LTE Inter-working with 2G, 3G

● Roaming
● Inter-working with 3GPP and non-3GPP networks

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