MANO is a Management and Orchestration software aligned with ETSI NFV (Network Net. The key components of the ETSI NFV architecture are the NFV Orchestrator and VNF Manager, known as NFV MANO. Additional layers, such as service orchestration are also required for operators to enable true NFV services. Open Source software can facilitate the implementation of an ETSI aligned NFV architecture, provide practical and essential feedback to the ETSI ISG NFV and increase the likelihood of interoperability among NFV implementations.

Figure 1. MANO Usage concept and virtualization example.

NFV Orchestrator – generates, maintains and tears down network services of VNF themselves and enables creation of end to end service over multiple VNFs. NFV Orchestrator is also responsible for global resource management of NFVI resources (Physical resources, Virtual resources and Virtualization Layer). The Orchestrator performs its functions through VNFM and VIM.

VNFM (VNF Manager) – manages a VNF or multiple VNFs and is responsible for life cycle management of VNF instances. Life cycle management means setting up/maintaining and tearing down VNFs. Additionally VNF Manager does the FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance, Security) for the virtual part of the VNF.

VIM (Virtualized Infrastructure Manager) – is the management system for NFVI (Network Function Virtualization Infrastructure). It is responsible for controlling and managing the NFVI compute, network and storage resources within the infrastructure domain. It is also responsible for collection of performance measurements and events.

VNF (Virtual Network Function) – is the basic block in NFV Architecture. It is the virtualized network element. Examples of VNFs:

  • VNF-eNodeB (PHY+MAC+RLC),
  • VNF-eNodeB (PDCP+RRC+S1AP),
  • VNF-gNodeB (H PHY+MAC+RLC),

EM (Element Management) – is an element management system for VNF. This is responsible for the functional management of VNF i.e. FCAPS ( Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security Management). This may manage the VNFs through proprietary interfaces. There may be one EMS per VNF or an EMS can manage multiple VNFs. EMS itself can be a VNF. EM does the management of functional components (for example issues related to mobile signalling).

NFVI (Network Function Virtualization Infrastructure) – is the environment in which VNFs run. This includes Physical resources, Virtual resources and Virtualization Layer:

  • Compute, Memory and Network – is the physical part in NFVI. Virtual resources are instantiated on these physical resources.
  • Virtual Compute, Virtual Memory and Virtual Network – is the virtual part in NFVI. The physical resources are abstracted into virtual resources that are ultimately utilized by VNFs.
  • Virtualization Layer – is responsible for abstracting physical resources into virtual resources. The common industry term for this layer is “Hypervisor”. This layer decouples software from hardware which enables the software to progress independently from hardware.

OSS/BSS (Operation Support System / Business Support System) – OSS deals with network management, fault management, configuration management and service management. BSS deals with customer management, product management and order management. In the NFV architecture, the OSS/BSS is integrated with the NFV Orchestrator and VNF Manager using standard interfaces (i.e. SOL3, SOL5).